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. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms includes provisions that guarantee English and French language schools and reaffirms the rights of separate schools in Ontario Four school boards in Toronto provide public elementary secondary and adult education the four school boards operate as either English or French first language school boards and as either secular or separate school boards The number of school boards based in Toronto and the kinds of institutions that they operate are a result of constitutional arrangements found in the Constitution of Canada Separate schools in Ontario are constitutionally protected under Section 93 of the Constitution Act 1867 and is further reinforced by Section 29 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms French language schools in Toronto are constitutionally protected under Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms In 1980 there were 7 French schools (secular and separate) in Metropolitan Toronto Maurice Bergevin the vice principal of the Etienne Brule School stated that a study from Montreal in 1971 noted that if francophones in Toronto had the same proportion of schools that anglophones had in Montreal there would be 31 francophone schools in Metropolitan Toronto According to a 1971 Canadian federal census Toronto had 160,000 francophones the number of French first language schools in Toronto has since grown to 26 (secular and separate) Several alternative schools in Toronto are also operated by Toronto's public school boards the oldest is ALPHA Alternative School which opened in 1972 the first conference for publicly funded alternative schools in the Greater Toronto Area happened in Nov 2012. Ontario's Ministry of Education distance education program the Independent Learning Centre is also headquartered in Toronto Secular, Graduate programs include a Ph.D and MA programs in Communications and Culture (jointly with York University) and master's degrees in documentary media fashion studies journalism media production photographic preservation and collections management and professional communications the faculty also houses a gallery and museum the Ryerson Image Centre Faculty of Community Services.
. . . . 64 147 2011 20,267 Extended Northumberland County 85,598 A map of the Toronto purchase notable is the British surveyor's insistence on using a grid instead of using the natural features to demarcate boundaries such as Etobicoke Creek Under the Treaty of Paris which ended the conflict between Great Britain and its former colonies the boundary of British North America was set in the middle of the Great Lakes This made the land north of the border more important strategically and as the place for Loyalists to settle after the war in 1781 the Mississaugas surrendered a strip of land along the Niagara River and in 1783 land on the Bay of Quinte for the Mohawks who had been loyal to the British to settle (today's Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory) Between 1783 and 1785 10,000 Loyalists arrived and were settling on land the Crown had recognized as Indian Land in 1784 the Mississaugas surrendered more land in the Niagara peninsula including land on the Grand River for the Iroquois In 1786 Lord Dorchester arrived in Quebec City as Governor-in-Chief of British North America His mission was to solve the problems of the newly landed Loyalists at first Dorchester suggested opening the new Canada West as districts under the Quebec government but the British Government made known its intention to split Canada into Upper and Lower Canada Dorchester began organizing for the new province of Upper Canada including a capital Dorchester's first choice was Kingston but was aware of the number of Loyalists in the Bay of Quinte and Niagara areas and chose instead the location north of the Bay of Toronto midway between the settlements and 30 miles (48 km) from the US Under the policy of the time the British recognized aboriginal title to the land and Dorchester arranged to purchase the lands from the Mississaugas The 1787 purchase according to British records was conducted on September 23 1787 at the "Carrying-Place" of Bay of Quinte the British crown and the Mississaugas of New Credit met to arrange for the surrender of lands along Lake Ontario in the case of the Toronto area the Mississaugas of New Credit exchanged 250,808 acres (101,498 ha) of land in what became York County (most of current Toronto and the Regional Municipality of York bounded by Lake Ontario to the south approximately Etobicoke Creek/Highway 27 to the west approximately Ashbridge's Bay/Woodbine Avenue-Highway 404 to the east and approximately south of Sideroad 15-Bloomington Road to the north) for some money 2,000 gun flints 24 brass kettles 120 mirrors 24 laced hats a bale of flowered flannel and 96 gallons of rum At the time the Mississaugas believed that the agreement was not a purchase extinguishing their rights to the land but a rental of the lands for British use in exchange for gifts and presents in perpetuity In 1788 surveyor Alexander Aitken was assigned to conduct a survey of the Toronto site the Mississaugas blocked him for surveying west of the Humber saying the lands to the west had not been ceded Aitken was only allowed to survey the land after British authorities interceded with the Mississaugas Aitken surveyed west to Etobicoke Creek but did not survey more than a few miles from the lake before stopping to avoid further confrontation 1805 indenture. 2007 20,134 2.1 Topography Democratic governance School of Creative Industries, Typical landscape of the Canadian Shield at Queen Elizabeth II Wildlands Provincial Park located in Central Ontario The province consists of three main geographical regions:. Four Seasons Hotel in Florence in the historic Palazzo della Gherardesca, Faculty of Community Services, CONCACAF Champions League 4.4 Shopping centres.